This is a very interesting question, and one at the heart of the negotiations. Currently the majority of countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) these are plans that say what each country plans to bring to the table for climate action. Since they are formally submitted documents, the UN and their climate analysts have been able to track what is coming in and make predictions based on them. A great tool to check what has come in is Climate Action Tracker.
The problem is the INDCs will only limit climate change to 2.7 degrees Celsius by 2100, which is not good enough to keep catestrophic climate change at bay. In fact, many climate scientests are advocating that 1.5 degrees is a much safer target.
Seeing as these commitments aren't enough, high-level officials like UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon are advocating for emissions target reviews every five years, while other actors, like India, are pushing for reviews only every 10 years. Either way, these reviews would be formal times when countries would be pushed to strengthen their targets and adapt them to incorprate new technologies. Check out Climate Central for more information on this process.
Finally, a key piece of this will also be enforcement, which is quite hard to do. For more on this matter look at the answer we had for @KeiverTremblay in last week's post.
Student Energy is a global not-for-profit dedicated to creating the next generation of leaders who will transition the world to a sustainable energy future.
Student Energy encourages youth engagement with energy: in the industry, in global forums, and in their communities. Students should have a voice wherever their future is being determined.